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On the 1st April 2011 my PhD was officially awarded.  I am the first person to have completed a PhD on the biology of pygmy seahorses and I'm excited to share some of my findings.  My thesis is entitled 'The Biology and Conservation of Gorgonian-Associated Pygmy Seahorses'.  I will be publishing the findings from my thesis in the scientific literature in the coming months so keep checking back or sign up to my blog updates for details.  Until then I wanted to share some information and facts about pygmy seahorses:


• What is a pygmy seahorse?

Pygmy seahorses are a group of seven species of miniature syngnathids (technical name for seahorses and pipefish) fish that live in the Coral Triangle region of southeast Asia. They range in length from 1.4 - 2.7 cm between the tip of the tail to the end of the snout.

• How many species of pygmy seahorse are there?

Within the first decade of the 21st century six of the present total of seven species of pygmy seahorse were officially named.  Before that only Bargibant's pygmy seahorse was known to science, having been described in 1970. 

Follow the links below to the image galleries for each of the pygmy seahorse species where there is more information about them individually:

Bargibant's Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti)Bargibant's pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti)






Denise's pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus denise)Denise's pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus denise)






Pontoh's Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus pontohi)Pontoh's pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus pontohi)






Satomi's Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus satomiae)Satomi's pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus satomiae)






Severn's Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus severnsi)Severn's pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus severnsi)






Walea Soft Coral Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus waleananus)Walea soft coral pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus waleananus)






The final described species of pygmy seahorse, Coleman's pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus colemani), is thought to be restricted to Lord Howe Island off the east coast of Australia although there are unconfirmed reports from eastern Papua New Guinea and Taiwan.  I am yet to observe this species in the wild but hopefully one day I will have the opportunity!

There are likely to be new and undescribed species of pygmy seahorse yet to be discovered.  One such species that awaits a name is the Japanese pygmy seahorse.

Japanese pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus sp.)Japanese pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus sp.)







• How do pygmy seahorses differ from the larger seahorses?

Pygmy seahorses are morphologically distinct from all other seahorses.  Apart from their extremely small size, they have a single gill opening on the back of the head (all other seahorses have a pair of gill openings either side of the head) and the young are brooded within the male's trunk rather than a pouch on the tail.

Several other small seahorses are sometimes referred to as pygmy seahorses, but lack the true pygmy's single gill opening and trunk brooding.  These include some recently discovered species such as the endemic Red Sea soft coral pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus debelius) and a pair of deepwater, apparently closely related, southern Australian seahorses: the southeast Australian Bullneck seahorse (Hippocampus minotaur) and the southwestern Paradoxical seahorse (Hippocampus paradoxus).

• Where do pygmy seahorses live?

Pygmy seahorses live in different habitats from their larger cousins.  Larger seahorses are rarely found on tropical corals reefs, particularly current prone walls.  Pygmy seahorses have evolved several adaptations to fill this niche perfectly.  

Three species of pygmy seahorse have evolved a special association with sessile coral reef invertebrates.  Two, Bargibant's and Denise's pygmy seahorses, are only found living on gorgonian corals.  Bargibant's lives only on one genus of gorgonian coral, Muricella spp, whilst Denise's pygmy seahorse is known from at least nine genera of gorgonians.  The third species, the Walea pygmy seahorse, is found living in association with soft corals.

• What do pygmy seahorses eat?

The diet of pygmy seahorses consists of small crustaceans.

• Can you distinguish between male and female pygmy seahorses?

Male pygmy seahorses have a tiny slit at the base of the abdomen and females have a tiny round, raised pore.

Distinguishing between male and female pygmy seahorses

Female pygmy seahorse on the left hand image (a) with a raised circular urinogenital pore and a male right (b) with a slit-like opening to the brood pouch.  Scale bars are 5 mm.

• How do pygmy seahorses reproduce?

Like all seahorses the male is responsible for all post-fertilisation care of the developing young.  Eggs are transferred, unfertilised, to him from his mate into his brood pouch.  They remain within the pouch, which is full of blood vessels, until they are born 11-14 days later.  The blood vessels bring nourishment and oxygen to the developing offspring.  Between 6 and 34 young have been recorded from a single clutch of eggs.

• What happens to the baby pygmy seahorses after they're born?

The young are released with some force from the male's brood pouch and are swept away by the current into the ocean.  They then have a planktonic phase where they feed and grow in the water column until settling onto the reef.  They are dark in colour until settling onto the reef, where they change to suit their immediate surroundings.

Satomi's pygmy seahorse on the other hand, is reported to give birth to young that settle immediately to the reef around their parents.  This observation does however seem at odds with the relatively large geographic distribution of the species.  Without a pelagic phase for young pygmies to drift with ocean currents and reach new reefs they would be unlikely to have a distribution stretching from east to west Indonesia.

For more information on the birth of pygmy seahorses in the wild follow this link to my paper from the journal Coral Reefs.

• Are pygmy seahorses endangered?

Mine has been the first study on the population sizes of pygmy seahorses.  Currently all seven species of pygmy seahorse are classified as 'Data Deficient' by the IUCN World Conservation Union.  This classification means that not enough is known about their population sizes to make an informed assessment of their conservation requirements. 

I studied the populations of Bargibant's and Denise's pygmy seahorses around Wakatobi Dive Resort, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.  The resort has gone to great lengths to protect their reefs for the last fifteen years, which provided a rare opportunity to estimate pygmy seahorse populations in a near pristine environment.  I found that the population sizes of these two pygmy seahorse species are naturally low.  They were in fact among the lowest for any unexploited seahorse population yet studied.  Their habitat specificity and small population sizes mean that conservation measures may need to be taken to protect them in some areas.

For more information on my pygmy seahorse population paper published in the scientific journal Marine Ecology Progress Series, please follow this link.

• Do pygmy seahorses have any predators?

The small size and amazing camouflage of pygmy seahorses mean they do not suffer heavy rates of predation.  Occasionally however, they may be opportunistically be taken by one of the reef's general predators.  There are also reports of long-nose hawkfish eating pygmy seahorses but there is no truth to the myth that the presence of a hawkfish on a gorgonian means there will be no pygmies present.

• Can you keep pygmy seahorses as pets in an aquarium?

The habitat specialisation of pygmy seahorses, their extremely delicate nature and small size all prevent the true pygmy seahorses from being kept as pets in aquaria.  Unsuccessful attempts have been made by national aquaria in the past and resulted in the death of the animals and their gorgonian coral host. Confusion can arise as the Dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae, is also known as a pygmy seahorse.  Unlike the true pygmies, this species is slightly larger, has paired gill openings and males have a brood pouch located on the tail.  The care of these dwarf seahorses can be quite challenging and it is recommended only for experienced aquarists.


pygmy seahorses (doesnt matter which one)

I am doing a project for school on these seahorses and I cant seem to find how long they live for, would you happen to know?

Those damn polyps

Hi Richard,

Congratulations on the doctorate.

Quick question for you - those polyp mimics on bargibanti - I have read that these are polyps incorporated from the host - I find this extremely unlikely (as I have never seen extended tentacles) but figure you will probabkly know.

Pretty sure I have photos of Severn's pygmy seahorse - I spent 40 minutes at Manta Sandy at Kir Eco pohotographing this species under a coral ledge - I was the only one not to have a manta encounter - but I was the only one to have a Severn's encounter ... what do you think?

Cheers and beers,

Paddy Ryan


I am doing a project for my

I am doing a project for my Oceanography class, and I chose the Pygmy Seahorse as my topic. They have always been my favorite sea creature! I would like your permission to use some of your photos in my powerpoint, fully credited of course. Your photos are beautiful, and your papers have all the information I need for my project, so I would like to credit you as my main source of information. Would you mind? Please respond soon, thank you!

Taking photos of pygmy seahorses with strobes/torches

Hi Richard,


Congratulations on your PhD on the subject.


One question I'd like to ask that seems to bring up heated debate where ever I go diving where pygmy seahorses are found is whether strobes/torches are possibly harmful or stressful to pygmy seahorses.


I've been to some dive resorts where they claim strobes from cameras or torches for video can fatally stress pygmy seahorses, and other resorts where they have no such concern, allowing photographers to use them liberally.


Have you any evidence whether or not these are harmful to them due to your own experience of revisiting the same pygmy seahorse over time having taken photos of it? This is really to satisfy my own curiousity as a keen photographer/videographer, though I have erred on the side of caution and not used strobes/torches when capturing images of them.


Best regards,


Dominic Giles




I have a couple of half-decent images of a pygmy seahorse from the Witu Islands, Bismarck Sea, PNG from October. Looks a bit like Coleman's, but flatter.... Let me know if you'd like to see them.



Sorting out the taxonomy of pygmy seahorses and pygmy pipehorses

Hi Richard,

I was just putting together a Wikipedia article on the subfamily Hippocampinae (because the one that was there didn't make all that much sense), mostly on some outdated work I did a few years ago. I came across your work several times while going through the literature, and I started to think that I should perhaps get back into the syngnathid business and sort out some of the taxonomic issues that I never even intended to address back then.

I would have thought that issues such as - are the pygmy seahorses a monophyletic sister group to the normal seahorses, and should thus be placed into their own taxonomic grouping, and are the pygmy pipehorses basal to the seahorses or do they form a sister clade - would have been sorted out long ago. Healy Hamilton from the California Academy of Sciences was giving a number of presentations on these issues at conferences a few years ago, but not much seems to have come out of it.

The field of genetics has undergone a massive overhaul in the meantime, and instead of the 5-10 loci we used to study just a few years ago, we can literally study thousands of markers these days. This suggests that now is a good time to sort out some long-standing issues. I am presently based in one of just a handful of labs in the world that can do this kind of work.

I'm not sure what you are up to these days, but if you are still going to Indonesia occasionally and could obtain samples of pivotal syngnathid groups, we should perhaps consider collaborating on this issue, and jointly produce at least one very comprehensive paper. It wouldn't involve a lot of additonal sampling, and could be as simple as: 1 more pygmy pipehorse (we've already got Idiotropiscis), one more pygmy seahorse (we've got H. bargibanti), and a couple of pipefishes that sort of messed up Healy's phylogeny. Given the high quality of fish tissues, it wouldn't even be necessary to kill any specimens, but rather take a photo and a small piece of tissue.

Looking forward to your response.

All the best,

Peter Teske

(Molecular Ecology Lab, Flinders University of South Australia)


P.S.: You would probably the right person to correct and add to the Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampinae 

If you find any obvious errors or think something important should be added, please let me know.

I love your website and the

I love your website and the seahorses are so cute !!!!!

would it effect the ecosystem

would it effect the ecosystem if pygmy seahorses were gone and if it does what would happen??


Baby pygmy seahorses, predators and water temperatures

How big are the baby pygmy seahorses when they leave the father's pouch?  What opportunistic predators MIGHT feed on the lovely creatures and what is the water temperature where they are found?  Thank you.  I love these amazing animals and your material is amazing.


Children's Writer




Hyppocampus Waleananus

Hi, I'm Destiny, age: 15, I was wondering if you could get one of these amazing seahorses as a pet.
I went to the aquarium in Denver and I saw seahorses and I have been like amazed with them forever but really just got into them. I was looking online for seahorses as pets and I thought this type was the most amazing kind, it would be cool to have as a pet, so if you could please consider on answering back that would be great, thank you(:

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